Monthly Archives: April 2016

Three tips to improve nitrogen efficiency

Eric Scherder, Ph.D
Field Scientist
Dow AgroSciences

Eric Scherder

Improving nitrogen efficiency should be top of mind as growers evaluate last season and start planting corn this spring. From nitrogen application timing to using proven technology to protect this valuable asset, consider these tips to maximize spring nitrogen applications.

    • Timing matters. For healthy corn growth, nitrogen should be applied as close as possible to the point when the crop needs it most. Corn starts to take up a significant amount of nutrients between the V5 and V8 growth stages, or up to 75 days after emergence. It’s vital to preserve nitrogen by using tools such as a nitrogen stabilizer so corn has the nutrients it needs during these periods of maximum crop uptake.

      Remind your customers to follow the 4R program this spring — a concept to use the right fertilizer source, at the right rate, at the right time, with the right placement.
    • Weigh the loss factors. Timely fertilizer applications are important; however, even the seemingly perfect time can be derailed by weather. Early spring rains drive nitrogen lower into soil profiles, out of the reach of corn roots through nitrate leaching.

      If a grower has experienced nitrogen loss and didn’t stabilize a given application, the grower may have applied the right rate, at the right time and at the right place; yet without stabilization, nitrogen was subjected to leaching, and yield and nitrogen loss occurred. A nitrogen stabilizer such as N-Serve® or Instinct® II acts as an insurance policy for your customers’ nitrogen, so it stays where it needs to be for corn to use.
  • Pick a proven product. With a cluttered market of fertilizer efficiency products, be sure to research which products are proven to work.

    Nitrapyrin, the active ingredient in N-Serve and Instinct II, has been rigorously tested by third-party experts for more than four decades. N-Serve and Instinct II have been proven to provide an average 6-bushel-per-acre increase compared with untreated acres by slowing the nitrification process.* Slowing the nitrification process keeps more nitrogen available to crops during the critical period of nutrient uptake.

    N-Serve can be applied with anhydrous ammonia. Instinct II protects nitrogen when applied with UAN, urea and liquid manure. Both products have been proven to perform in fall or spring.

For more information on helping your customers improve nitrogen efficiency this spring, visit NitrogenStabilizers.com.

*Average 6-bushel yield return in spring stabilization vs. nontreated from 2008-14 across 100-plus trials.

Applying a nitrogen stabilizer with spring nitrogen applications can help ensure this critical nutrient will remain available for corn to use during key stages of crop growth.

Applying a nitrogen stabilizer with spring nitrogen applications can help ensure this critical nutrient will remain available for corn to use during key stages of crop growth.

®Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company (“Dow”) or an affiliated company of Dow. Instinct II is not registered for sale or use in all states. Contact your state pesticide regulatory agency to determine if a product is registered for sale or use in your state. Do not fall-apply anhydrous ammonia south of Highway 16 in the state of Illinois. Always read and follow label directions. ©2016 Dow AgroSciences LLC

Power to protect yield potential

With today’s market dynamics, growers are looking for ways to maximize profit this spring.

Because weeds have the ability to rob the corn crop of essential moisture, sunlight and nutrients during key growth stages, weed control is one investment that is top of mind for growers, says Luke Peters, corn herbicides product manager, Dow AgroSciences.

“We know that weeds have the ability to rob yield potential from a corn crop,” he says. “We want to make sure that yield potential is protected by a herbicide with extended, trusted residual control to make sure the crop is maximizing the resources in the field.”

resicore_logoThis season, help your customers protect yield potential by giving them the power they need over high-anxiety weeds with Resicore™ herbicide. Resicore features a novel formulation of three leading active ingredients with three nonglyphosate and nonatrazine modes of action to control tough weeds, including waterhemp, giant ragweed, Palmer amaranth, morningglory, marestail and more than 70 other species.

Watch the video below to hear more from Peters about the power of Resicore.

Visit PowerOverWeeds.com or contact your Dow AgroSciences sales representative for more information on how to optimize yield potential this spring.

®™Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company (“Dow”) or an affiliated company of Dow. Resicore is not registered for sale or use in all states. Resicore is not available for sale, distribution or use in Nassau and Suffolk counties in the state of New York. Contact your state pesticide regulatory agency to determine if a product is registered for sale or use in your state. Always read and follow label directions. ©2016 Dow AgroSciences LLC

A successful season starts with strong weed control

Set your customers up for success this spring by recommending a preemergence herbicide to reduce early season weed competition and give soybeans the strong start they need.

Allowing weeds to compete with crops during early stages of development can consequently decrease yield at harvest because weeds deprive developing soybean plants of sun, water and nutrients. By controlling weeds at the beginning of the season with a preemergence residual herbicide, growers give soybean plants the opportunity to grow without competition for optimized yield potential.

Research from the University of Missouri emphasizes the importance of controlling weeds at the start of the season. According to the university’s research, several tough weed species Midwest growers battle each year — giant foxtail, shattercane, waterhemp, velvetleaf, morningglory and common cocklebur — can significantly reduce yield.

Approximate yield loss from only one of these weed species can range from 1 percent in situations of “very low” weed density to 18 percent in situations of “very high” weed densities. Growers who see each of these species in their fields at the same time could expect an approximate yield loss of 6 percent to 34 percent if they are left uncontrolled.

SonicBecause of the ability for weeds to rob yield, it is vital soybean growers use a preemergence residual herbicide to control weeds early so they stay small and manageable throughout the whole season. Sonic® herbicide has two nonglyphosate modes of action that deliver long-lasting control to prevent troublesome weeds, including morningglory and Palmer amaranth, from emerging for clean fields and optimum yield potential.

For more information to help your customers craft a strong battle plan against weeds, visit BattleWeeds.com.

Approximate soybean yield loss with various densities of weeds

Source: Practical Weed Science for the Field Scout: Corn and Soybean. University of Missouri Weed Science. http://extension.missouri.edu/p/IPM1007

®Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company (“Dow”) or an affiliated company of Dow. Sonic is not registered for sale or use in all states. Contact your state pesticide regulatory agency to determine if a product is registered for sale or use in your state. Always read and follow label directions. ©2016 Dow AgroSciences LLC

Early weed pressure can drastically impact corn yield

Early season weed competition can have a serious and irreversible effect on corn yield.

Weeds as small as 2 inches can reduce corn yield if they are present at a high density early in the season, according to research from Iowa State University. For example, giant foxtail at 2 to 4 inches of height can reduce yield by 0.5 percent per day. At 6 to 8 inches tall, 1.5 percent yield loss can occur per day.1

Early in the season, weeds can starve young corn plants of essential nutrients, sunlight and moisture. When weed control measures are delayed, there is a greater chance for yield reduction. To protect yield potential from weed pressure, it’s important growers control weeds at the start of the season to reduce competition during early and critical stages of crop growth.

A preemergence residual herbicide, such as SureStart® II herbicide, controls weeds early so corn can start strong without competing with weeds.

SureStart II can provide your customers with early season control of more than 60 broadleaf weeds and grasses. With a wide application window from preplant up to 11-inch corn, SureStart II provides application flexibility and residual control corn growers trust for proven performance on high-anxiety weeds, including giant foxtail, marestail and Palmer amaranth.

For more information on how SureStart II can protect your customers’ yield potential, visit GetMoreTime.com or contact your local Dow AgroSciences sales representative.

1Iowa State University of Science and Technology. 2009. Corn Field Guide.
http://www.agronext.iastate.edu/corn/docs/corn-field-guide.pdf

early season weed control

Early season weed competition can have a detrimental effect on corn yield. Use a preemergence herbicide, such as SureStart® II herbicide, to control early season weeds and protect yield potential.

®Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company (“Dow”) or an affiliated company of Dow. SureStart II is not registered for sale or use in all states. SureStart II is not available for sale, distribution or use in Nassau and Suffolk counties in the state of New York. Contact your state pesticide regulatory agency to determine if a product is registered for sale or use in your state. Always read and follow label directions. ©2016 Dow AgroSciences LLC

Help growers understand how they can minimize off-target movement

Retailers can help their customers feel more confident by offering tips to minimize pesticide drift. Growers can reduce drift by adopting good management practices and by choosing products that offer low volatility and limit physical drift.

Off-target application of pesticides can damage neighboring crops and may leave a grower and/or commercial applicator open to legal action and financial penalties. It also requires time to work through the off-target movement claims. As their neighbors plant susceptible crops – including grapes, tomatoes and cotton – growers need to pay close attention to ways of avoiding off-target movement. Retailers are in a great position to help them understand more about how and when it can occur and help them minimize incidents of drift.

How pesticides move   

Pesticides can move off-target in three ways: through particle drift, through vapor drift and via application equipment not properly cleaned. The most obvious form of drift is particle drift. This occurs during application when small droplets stay in the air long enough for air currents to move them away from targeted plants. With higher wind speeds, these particles can move a surprisingly long distance.

In addition to high winds, other environmental conditions can cause small droplets to move out of targeted fields. Temperature inversions can occur even when calm, low-wind conditions exist. According to Mitigating Pesticide Spray Drift, a University of Arkansas publication, temperature inversions involve increasing air temperatures with increasing height. Cooler, denser air settles below warmer, thinner air, preventing vertical mixing. This allows the cooler air containing pesticide particles to move horizontally into neighboring fields.

Remind growers to avoid applying pesticides when they suspect a temperature inversion. Inversions may occur when wind speeds are slower than 3 mph, often beginning a few hours before sunset on clear, calm evenings. They can be strongest just after sunrise after a clear, calm night. The presence of fog or dew is a strong indicator of a temperature inversion.

Promote low-volatility products

Vapor drift — also called volatility — involves movement of pesticide from plant or soil surface into the air. Every pesticide formulation has its own propensity for volatility. Weather can influence whether the product actually moves. The University of Arkansas publication suggests applicators select low-volatility formulations and adhere to all application recommendations on the product label to avoid vapor drift.

Pesticides can reach susceptible crops in a less-obvious way — through residue from a poorly cleaned sprayer tank. Retailers can help by reminding customers to clean tanks according to the product label between uses. Products with clear, easy-to-follow tank cleanout instructions can help growers avoid an accident.

The Enlist™ weed control system can help growers avoid all three potential herbicide movement issues listed above. Enlist Duo® herbicide is designed for use in Enlist crops. It combines glyphosate and new 2,4-D choline and features Colex-D® technology, which offers near-zero volatility and minimized potential for drift. In addition, the label for Enlist Duo herbicide describes the simple tank cleanout procedures, which involves a single rinse when the next field to be sprayed is glyphosate-tolerant corn or a triple-rinse with water if moving to any other crop.

Retailers who help growers realize ways to control off-target movement are providing a valuable service — one that will strengthen relationships and help make growers more successful.

For more information on on-target application and Enlist Duo herbicide, visit Enlist.com.

®™Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company (“Dow”) or an affiliated company of Dow. Enlist Duo herbicide is not yet registered for use on Enlist cotton. Enlist Duo is not registered for sale or use in all states. Contact your state pesticide regulatory agency to determine if a product is registered for sale or use in your state. Always read and follow label directions. ©2016 Dow AgroSciences LLC

Weed of the Month: Waterhemp

waterhemp

Fast facts:

  • Waterhemp is one of the most common weeds Midwest growers face every season. A number of factors — reduced-tillage systems, herbicide-resistant biotypes and simplified weed management systems — contributed to the rise of waterhemp problems in the late 1980s and early 1990s.3
    • Waterhemp has small seeds that can only emerge from shallow depths, placing no-till fields at greater risk for growth.3
  • Common waterhemp is a slender, willowy plant with many branches. Mature plants range from 4 inches to 12 feet in height.3
  • The species can be identified by its brightly colored leaves, varying from deep red or pink to emerald green. Its stems, leaves and seed head all may be differently colored on a single individual plant. Stems and leaves are very smooth and hairless with a bright, glossy appearance. Leaves are long and narrow.
  • Waterhemp biotypes have developed resistance to multiple herbicide modes of action, which presents challenges for row-crop growers.

Resistance Statistics:*

According to WeedScience.org:

Herbicide classes

Multiple resistance: two sites of action

    • ALS inhibitors and Photosystem II inhibitors
    • ALS inhibitors and PPO inhibitors
    • ALS inhibitors and EPSP synthase inhibitors

Multiple resistance: three sites of action

                  • ALS inhibitors, Photosystem II inhibitors and PPO inhibitors
                  • ALS inhibitors, PPO inhibitors and EPSP synthase inhibitors
                  • ALS inhibitors, Photosystem II inhibitors and HPPD inhibitors

Multiple resistance: four sites of action

                          • ALS inhibitors, Photosystem II inhibitors, HPPD inhibitors and EPSP synthase inhibitors

*Resistance confirmation does not necessarily include all weeds and may vary among different areas of each state.

Weed management tips:

Scott Ditmarsen, field scientist, Dow AgroSciences, says:

  • High-volume seed producer. Waterhemp germinates throughout the growing season and is very competitive because of the volume of seeds it produces and its rapid growth rate.
    • Waterhemp seeds can survive several years in the soil.
  • Use a guide to identify the weed species. Waterhemp can be difficult to properly identify at early growth stages because it is a member of the pigweed (Amaranthus) family, along with Palmer amaranth and redroot pigweed. These species tend to have similar characteristics. Consulting a university weed identification guide can help identify which species is in a field.
    • Waterhemp stems are hairless, while other pigweed species have hairy stems. Cotyledons usually are more egg-shaped than the longer and narrower cotyledons of other pigweed species, while the first true leaves of waterhemp typically are longer and more lance-shaped than those of other pigweeds. Also, waterhemp seedlings are hairless with shiny or waxy leaves.
  • Early control is critical. Scout throughout the growing season to identify waterhemp early to ensure timely herbicide applications.
    • Aggressive tillage and a program approach using preemergence herbicides followed by postemergence herbicides with multiple modes of action is the best strategy to control waterhemp. Consider using Resicore™ herbicide in corn or Sonic® herbicide in soybeans preemergence to control waterhemp into the growing season.
    • Any cultural practices that improve crop competitiveness will improve the effectiveness of herbicide programs. Physical removal of escaped plants to reduce competition and seed production, when feasible, also is recommended.

Dow AgroSciences weed control solutions:

Corn

SureStart® II herbicide
Resicore™ herbicide
Keystone® NXT herbicide
Keystone® LA NXT herbicide

FulTime® NXT herbicide
Surpass® NXT herbicide 
Durango® DMA® herbicide
Duramax® herbicide
Enlist Duo® herbicide, as part of the Enlist™ weed control system

Soybean

Sonic® herbicide
Surveil® herbicide
Durango® DMA® herbicide
Duramax® herbicide
Enlist Duo® herbicide, as part of the Enlist™ weed control system

Additional information:

More information can be found through these weed science resources:

1Everman, W., C. Sprague, S. Grower, and R. Richardson. 2010. An IPM Pocket Guide for Weed Identification in Field Crops.
2University of Illinois Extension. 2008. Recommendations for Management of Glyphosate-Resistant Waterhemp in Illinois Soybean. http://weeds.cropsci.illinois.edu/extension/factsheets/whempsoy.pdf.
3Nordby, D., B. Hartzler, and K. Bradley. 2007. Biology and Management of Waterhemp. https://www.extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/bp/gwc-13.pdf.

®™Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company (“Dow”) or an affiliated company of Dow. FulTime NXT, Keystone LA NXT and Keystone NXT are federally Restricted Use Pesticides. Duramax, Durango DMA, Enlist Duo, FulTime NXT, Keystone LA NXT, Keystone NXT, Resicore, Sonic, SureStart II, Surpass NXT and Surveil are not registered for sale or use in all states. FulTime NXT, Keystone LA NXT, Keystone NXT, Resicore, SureStart II and Surpass NXT are not available for sale, distribution or use in Nassau and Suffolk counties in the state of New York. Contact your state pesticide regulatory agency to determine if a product is registered for sale or use in your state. Always read and follow label directions. ©2016 Dow AgroSciences LLC